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Shelley A. Cole, Hugo A. Laviada-Molina, Jeannette M. Serres-Perales, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala and Raul A. Bastarrachea,*. The COVID-19 Pandemic during the Time of the Diabetes Pandemic: Likely Fraternal Twins?. Pathogens 2020, 9, 389;


An altered immune response to pathogens has been suggested to explain increased susceptibility to infectious diseases in patients with diabetes. Recent evidence has documented several immunometabolic pathways in patients with diabetes directly related to the COVID-19 infection. This also seems to be the case for prediabetic subjects with proinflammatory insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with prothrombotic hyperinsulinemic and dysglycemic states. Patients with frank hyperglycemia, dysglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia develop systemic immunometabolic inflammation with higher levels of circulating cytokines. This deleterious scenario has been proposed as the underlying mechanism enhancing a cytokine storm-like hyperinflammatory state in diabetics infected with severe COVID-19 triggering multi-organ failure. Compared with moderately a ected COVID-19 patients, diabetes was found to be highly prevalent among severely a ected patients suggesting that this non-communicable disease should be considered as a risk factor for adverse outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic mirrors with the diabetes pandemic in many pathobiological aspects. Our interest is to emphasize the ties between the immunoinflammatory mechanisms that underlie the morbidity and lethality when COVID-19 meets diabetes. This review brings attention to two pathologies of highly complex, multifactorial, developmental and environmentally dependent manifestations of critical importance to human survival. Extreme caution should be taken with diabetics with suspected symptoms of COVID-19 infection.

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