Yuen KCJ, Biller BMK, Radovick S, Carmichael JD, Jasim S, Pantalone KM, Hoffman AR. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY IN ADULTS AND PATIENTS TRANSITIONING FROM PEDIATRIC TO ADULT CARE. Endocr Pract. 2019 Nov;25(11):1191-1232. doi: 10.4158/GL-2019-0405.
Objective: The development of these guidelines is sponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG).
Methods: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols.
Results: The Executive Summary of this 2019 updated guideline contains 58 numbered recommendations: 12 are Grade A (21%), 19 are Grade B (33%), 21 are Grade C (36%), and 6 are Grade D (10%). These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision-making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world care of patients. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for the Executive Summary recommendations. This update contains 357 citations of which 51 (14%) are evidence level (EL) 1 (strong), 168 (47%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 61 (17%) are EL 3 (weak), and 77 (22%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence).
Conclusion: This CPG is a practical tool that practicing endocrinologists and regulatory bodies can refer to regarding the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of adults and patients transitioning from pediatric to adult-care services with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). It provides guidelines on assessment, screening, diagnostic testing, and treatment recommendations for a range of individuals with various causes of adult GHD. The recommendations emphasize the importance of considering testing patients with a reasonable level of clinical suspicion of GHD using appropriate growth hormone (GH) cut-points for various GH-stimulation tests to accurately diagnose adult GHD, and to exercise caution interpreting serum GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, as various GH and IGF-1 assays are used to support treatment decisions. The intention to treat often requires sound clinical judgment and careful assessment of the benefits and risks specific to each individual patient. Unapproved uses of GH, long-term safety, and the current status of long-acting GH preparations are also discussed in this document.